Saturday, February 22, 2020

Criminology theory research paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Criminology theory research paper - Essay Example In response, the Canadian conservative government has adopted varied measures aimed at addressing this menace. These include increasing longer prison terms as well as establishing more prisons. (Agnew and Cullen 121) As much as this has been helpful in averting crime, its effectiveness has often been questionable. This therefore call the need for the application of classical criminology and strain theory to explain how government agencies can avert the ever increasing rates of crime in the city of Toronto. Classical criminology theory Prior to explaining how government agencies in Toronto can apply classical criminology theory to fight crime, it is important to analyze it major underlying concepts. The classical school of criminology is often associated with Cesare Beccaria (Slocum 1107). It emerged at a time when the naturalistic approach of social contract scholars was challenging the spiritualistic approach that had dominated the thinking of criminal justice policies over a long p eriod (Becker 174). Thus, classical criminology emerged as a protest against spiritual explanations of crime and the criminal policies which they were based. Beccaria protested against a wide range of inconsistencies in the governance as well as public affairs(Slocum 1108). He advocated for various reforms within the criminal justice system to make it more logical and rational(Slocum 1108). He objected the barbaric punishments that were issued at that time. In regard to the contractual society and the need of punishments, Beccaria argued that laws are conditions under which people are united to form a society. It is the law that defends against private usurpations by individuals. He believed that only established laws can decree punishments for crimes. Beccaria believed that the true measure of crime is the harm done to the society. Thus, he expressed acknowledgement of the fact that crimes should not be committed, or should be less frequent in proportion to the harm they case socie ty. For this reason, he contended that obstacles that deter people from engaging in crime should be made stringer in proportion as they are contrary to the public good. According to Beccaria, there must be a proper proportion between crime and punishment(Agnew and Cullen 231). Today, most law enforcement agencies apply this principle through the establishment of law enforcement agencies aimed at punishing criminals. In regard to severity of punishments, Beccaria believed that for punishment to attain it end, the evil it inflicts has to exceed the advantage derivable from the crime (Cornish and Clarke 943). He argued that the more prompt and more closely punishment followed upon the commission of a criminal activity, the more just and useful it well be. According to him, one of the greatest curbs of crime is not the cruelty of punishment but rather the certainty of punishment. Thus, he suggested that laws and executors of laws should be inexorable. Most importantly, Beccaria argued t hat it is better to prevent crime rather than to punish them(Agnew and Cullen 232). He therefore believed that the ultimate purpose of every good legislation should be to prevent crime. This can be done through making laws clear and simple and that the entire force of a country should be united in the defense of these laws. Therefore, Beccaria believed that laws should be published do that the public may be aware of they are expected to do. His

Thursday, February 6, 2020

Second (2nd) narrow bridge collapse Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Second (2nd) narrow bridge collapse - Essay Example The cause of accidents in the construction of bridges has been attributed mainly to the error committed during the project design. The errors are caused by negligence in the side of the contractors. The fatalities in the construction industry are caused by failure to comply with the industry’s safety and health guidelines. It is important to adhere to safety and health directives and guidelines to avert future disasters such as the second narrow bridge accident. Wienand and Zunde (147-158) confirmed that the second narrow bridge was made of steel metals, timber and reinforced concrete. According to Akesson (124), the construction of new highway bridge in British Columbia began in November 1957. The second narrow bridge had six lanes and was a continuous truss bridge (in all 1992 meter long) with the main 335-navigation span. It was also a cantilever construction having two anchor spans, (142 m each). The second narrow bridge had lanes specifically for the pedestrians and bicycles. It was the second bridge constructed at the Second (east) Narrows of Burrard Inlet in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. It was named the Second Narrows Bridge as it connects Vancouver to the north shore of Burrard Inlet, which includes the District of North Vancouver, the City of North Vancouver, and West Vancouver. It was constructed adjacent to the older Second Narrows Bridge, which is currently an exclusively rail bridge. The bridge was a steel truss cantile ver bridge, designed by Swan Wooster Engineering Co. Ltd. On June 17, 1958, the north anchor span through failure of the temporary truss, collapsed without warning and caused death of the sixteen workers and two engineers. Akesson (125) said that on the fateful afternoon of June 17, 1958, the crane was stretched to join the two chords of the arch that was under construction from the north side of the new bridge. Just before

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Person Centred Approach Essay Example for Free

Person Centred Approach Essay The definition of person centred values is treating and seeing people in a care setting as equals, who are involved in decision making to promote an independent way of life and to ensure that the care that is provided is appropriate to their needs. It takes into account service users views and needs and places them, along with their family at the centre of all decision making. Working in a way that embeds person centred values is important to meet the needs of my service user. With my clients it helps to build relationships with them and their family members to ensure a good quality of life and provide the best possible quality of care. This ranges from me attending to my service users personal care needs in a respectful way and to support them to achieve tasks on their own, to choices of what activities they would like to do that can help them to express their individuality or help them to create new relationships and overcome any feelings of social exclusion or devaluation. I also believe it’s important to respect any religious or cultural beliefs that they may have and support the individual to follow their chosen faith. Read more:  Person Centred Care Firstly I would look at the way in which I communicate with my service user. If they are verbal the simplest way I find out about the individual is to talk directly to them as it allows them to fully express themselves and make their own decisions. If non verbal then I would communication methods such as makaton, picture cards and visual aids to learn of their likes and dislikes. Another way is to speak with siblings as they could provide information the client may be unaware of or may have forgotten but also so they are included in the building of the care plan and it helps me build an understanding and a relationship with them. Talking with social workers, previous support workers, doctors or any other professional involved in the clients care an also provide information about their preferences and anything that may be important to the individual. With these methods it helps me find as much information as possible about my service user. In order to take into account the history, preferences, wishes and needs of an individual when planning care and support I would refer to the principles of person centred care. Rather than just supplying a service, each person should be treated as an individual by offering a personalised service specific to their needs and preferences. For example if an individual enjoyed an activity such as walking but needed support to do so I would plan a time for a walk so that the individual would get enjoyment from doing activities they choose and feel valued. Also, they should be treated them with the same dignity and respect you would want for a member family of your own. Refer to support plans to ensure the highest level of person centred care is maintained. Each individual’s care plan outlines and details the service user’s preferences and day to day requirements so that they receive the specific care and daily support they require from the level of support required with an individual’s personal hygiene and how to do it in a respectful way to what food and activities they like. The information is centred on the individuals wants and needs to ensure independence and choice rather than control, choice should always be offered regardless of importance of the activity or task, therefore each individuals care plan contributes to working in a person centred way. The term consent means giving permission to do something or agreement to an action and in a care setting consent is needed for a number of things. With my clients I need to ask for consent for administering medication, for help with bills, finances and banking, help with certain type of care such as bathing and personal hygiene. It’s important to gain consent for all activities as lack of it could be deemed as abuse as I would forcing someone to perform or to take part in a task or an activity they don’t want to be involved in. Consent however should not just be gained, but the client must fully understand what they are consenting to and any possible implications that the action or task can imply. It is also essential for protecting myself from any legal challenge. There are a few ways to establish an individual’s consent but it depends upon the individuals preferred communication. The methods I use with my clients are verbal, written notes, visual aids such as picture cards, makaton, some individuals communicate physically with body movements such as a nod or through a representative or advocate. Any of these are forms establishing consent that i would look to use with my clients. Establishing consent will vary as each individual’s capacity to consent is assessed. If consent cannot be established first steps would be to not carry out the task and document the information. If a person is mentally incapable of providing consent then you should refer to the individuals care/support plan that may have been established at a time when they were capable of making informed decisions. If this fails, consent can be given by next of kin or an advocate however I would ensure my client must be involved as much as possible to adhere to person centred values. Active participation is a way of working that allows an individual to be completely involved in every aspect of their lives. This could be what my service users have to eat, what they wear when they go out or go to work in, or it could be planning tasks and activities for the week ahead, deciding on where to go such as day trips out or holidays, arranging appointments to the doctors or the dentists and active participation in services that relate to their own care. Helping to be in control of their lives rather that a passive recipient. Active participation helps individuals by benefitting them in a number of ways. I believe it gives them independence and makes the service user feel in control of their own lives rather than having decisions made for them or having few choices. There are many benefits I’ve noticed such as growth in confidence in social situations, a sense of well being, a sense of achievement of taking control of their lives and I’ve noticed the mental and physical stimulation it also brings. Also encouraging individuals to participate in the planning and arranging of their own care increases their self confidence, independence and it is empowering. There are many ways to reducing barriers of active participation. In order to reduce any barriers to active participation you have to look at what the barriers could be. They could be lack of confidence or self esteem, a lack of opportunity to activities, difficulty in communication and lack of patience of others. To overcome these barriers I support my service users by offering them choices and in every aspect of their day to day lives and offering them opportunity to plan and do activities they enjoy which improves their confidence. I think it’s very important to have the patience to listen to service users and take time to understand how they feel and I find by discussing why they feel like this and talking through it can increase their feeling of self esteem. Communication barriers can be overcome by staff development and training, language and makaton are tools that can be learnt, but there other ways like picture cards and hand gestures I use with some service users to offer choices and to make decisions when they are non verbal. The method I find best to encourage active participation is by communicating and offering choices and then giving praise and encouragement to service users to increase their confidence to then go on to make more decisions in different aspect of their lives for themselves. I find it’s good to look for local events or if they show an interest in a hobby you could find out about local groups that would be prepared to support the individual to participate. You should always highlight the benefits of the activity and getting family members to join in with activities can make a big difference to encouraging participation from individuals. I would support an individual to make informed choices by giving the individual the full information regarding that decision. I would explain the positive and the negative effects of that decision regardless of my beliefs or views as my personal view should not influence an individual’s choice. The choices and decisions can be as simple offering the full information on items when supporting individuals with shopping, giving information on price and helping to find offers or decisions that may require risk assessments to make the individual fully aware of the any risks that may be involved. I believe all staff in a care setting should help to  empower their client by offering the information, knowledge and confidence to make informed decisions. I think risk taking can be part of an individual’s choices because there is risk in many day to day things that we do. Due to the nature of an individual’s disability, a simple task could be deemed a risk and would need risk assessing to make them fully aware of any potential dangers or threats to the individual’s safety. It’s important to make individuals aware of any risks or hazards Risk assessment processes are used to make an individual aware of the positive and negative consequences involved when for example taking part in an activity, we look at and record the risks and hazards involved and then decide if the risk is worth taking. However there are benefits that have to be taken in to consideration as new activities promote confidence and empowers individuals to live more independent lives. Having choice is an individual’s right, risk assessments provide support for them to make decisions in the safest way possible. I believe a worker’s personal views should not influence an individual’s choices because that is taking away their right to make informed choices. My views for example are not fact and should not be used to influence any decisions or life choices. I could inform an individual if a certain food was bad for them and suggest a healthier option however whatever they decide is their choice. Another example is religious or cultural choices and beliefs, my views are my own and I would support them to attend religious or cultural services and acknowledge religious holidays.

Monday, January 20, 2020

Catcher In The Rye :: essays research papers

Catcher in the Rye... J.D. Salinger’s, The Catcher in the Rye, is one of the most well-known novels of the past fifty years. It’s a story about a kid named Hold Caulfield who experiences some interesting things and people. From having breakfast with a couple of nuns, to hooking up with a prostitute, to getting kicked out of school, Holden handles each situation the best way he can. Some of the people Holden meets, he likes, but the type of people Holden can’s stand are the ‘phonies.’ Holden met a lot of phonies in his lifetime. Holden lived in a dorm that was named after a phony, he heard a phony playing a piano, and he met his date’s phony friend. Holden went to a boarding school named Pencey Prep. There, Holden lived in the Ossenburger Memorial Wing which is the name for the new dorms. The hall was only for juniors and seniors. The dorms were named after this guy named Ossenburger who also went to Pencey a long time ago. After Ossenburger got out of Pencey, he made a lot of money in the undertaking business. After making a bundle of dough, Ossenburger gave some of it to Pencey and that’s why the new wing of the dorms are named after him. Then the next morning, Ossenburger gave a speech to the students of Pencey Prep about how he was never ashamed when he was in some kind of trouble or something that Ossenburger would get right down on his knees and pray to God. Ossenburger kept on rambling bout how you should always pray to God and to talk to God wherever you were. Ossenburger said think of him as your buddy. Holden got a kick out of his speech. Holden could â€Å"just see the big phony bastard... asking Jesus to send him a few more stiffs.† Holden next went to this night club called Ernie’s. Holden was going there for a few drinks. Even though it was so late, the club was jam-packed. Ernie, the piano player, was playing some tune that Holden couldn’t recognize. Ernie was putting all these high notes, show-offy ripples in the high notes, and a lot of other tricky stuff that Holden thought was dumb. The crowd was going crazy for Ernie though, clapping and all that. â€Å"Old Ernie turned around on his stool and gave this very phony, humble bow.† Holden thought Ernie’s snobbish attitude was so phony but Holden felt kind of sorry for Ernie. Holden doesn’t even think that Ernie knows when he’s playing the tunes right or not. The last phony Holden met was while

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Frontier Thesis Essay

US History I Honors Frontier Thesis Jan. 14, 2012 Frontier Thesis Analysis Throughout the early 20th Century, Fredrick Jackson Turner changed many people’s views on evolution by creating his idea of the Frontier Thesis. Throughout his entire thesis he explained that the more west the settlers move, the more distant and individualized they become from their homeland of Europe. After receiving his PhD from Johns Hopkins University and later becoming a professor of history at Wisconsin and Harvard University, he became one of the most intelligent men when it came to history. His encyclopedic knowledge of American history earned him the reputation by 1910 as one of the two or three most influential historians in the country at that time. After completing the US History I class, I can confidently say that I agree with Jackson’s thesis. History has proven that as the years progress so does the evolution of the American people. Not only did people evolve more as they moved west, individuals also established their own religion, government, and educati on system. Religion was a topic that was extremely strict in Europe; it was their way or no way. As more immigrants came to America looking for a fresh start, they realized they had more freedom to do as they pleased, for example, the Mormons. The Mormons were not accepted by many, therefore forcing them to move around the country and expand westward into the unknown territory. The farther into the new territory they went, the farther away they were from anyone who had any say in what they could do. Even though the Mormon religion was frowned upon by many throughout the country and ended up coming to a halt when their leader Joseph Smith died, it was a prime example of how separating from Europe gave people the option to have more of an expression of how they wanted to live them lives. Moving westward showed that the farther west a group of people who were frowned upon travel, the less people wanted to do with them. Government and security were extremely big parts that made the United States become more of an independent country. The United States refused to let one ruler have all of the power, just like they did in England. To prevent this from happening, the US created a democracy. Being controlled by someone who is across an entire ocean made it extremely hard for them to monitor what was going on and moving west made it nearly impossible for the British to even have an idea of what was going on. Putting more distant in between lead to the realization that moving west gave them the freedom of an entire new life. In today’s day and age, the world in which we live in thrives on education. It is proven that the more education that one has, the farther they are able to go in life. Education gives many people opportunities that they otherwise wouldn’t have. Depending where you live, you often learn things very differently. For example, in New Jersey many people know about the Civil War, but if you travel down south the Civil War is not common. Many refer to the war as the War of Northern Aggression or the War for Southern Independence. The more west you travel into the United States, the more the story of the Civil War might also change. The more west an individual may move, the more distant and uninvolved they will become in what is going on in with the majority. Every region of the United States has their own criteria and curriculum; this proves Tuner’s Frontier Thesis because the more distant and spread out over an area individuals become the more different and individuali zed their lives become. Fredrick Jackson Turner’s Thesis does an extremely good job of explaining why life is the way it is today. The more distant that is between two groups of people, the more likely they are to go down different routes in life. As generations moved farther west they became more American by losing the traditions of their ancestors in Europe and creating their own. The newer generations begin to pick up traditions from others around them and combine them with what they were taught. As the years go on, nothing can stay the same. Things and people change, which is just a part of life. It is hard to  remain in contact with people who are half a world away. People were bound to become more Americanized as they moved west, it was just a matter of time.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Hotel Rwanda - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1516 Downloads: 9 Date added: 2017/09/24 Category Advertising Essay Type Narrative essay Topics: Conflict Essay Did you like this example? CRITICAL REVIEW We have been given a task to write a critical review on the theme Conflict and Resolution based on the movie screened, Hotel Rwanda. This film captures the unimaginable violence of genocide by telling the true story of a person, Paul Rusesabagina, manager of the Hotel Mille Collines in Rwanda’s capital city of Kigali who fights impossible odds to save everyone he can and provide a shelter where hope survives. While the rest of the world closed its eyes, Paul opened his heart and proved that one good man can make a difference. This analysis will focuses on the types, causes and resolution of the conflicts in the movie and also my personal view on its conflicts and resolution process. As what I have learnt, conflicts can be derived as an expressed struggle between at least two interdependent parties who perceive incompatible goals, scarce resources, and interference from the other party in achieving their goals. It exists when two people wish to carry out acts which are mutually inconsistent. They may both want to do the same thing, such as eat the same apple, or they may want to do different things where the different things are mutually incompatible, such as when they both want to stay together but one wants to go to the cinema and the other to stay at home. A conflict is resolved when some mutually compatible set of actions is worked out. The definition of conflict can be extended from individuals to groups (such as states or nations), and more than two parties can be involved in the conflict. The principles remain the same. â€Å"(M. Nicholson: Rationality and the Analysis of International Conflict. 1992:11) There are three types of conflicts: interpersonal, intranational and international conflicts. Interpersonal conflict occurs when two or more individuals who must work together fail to share the same views, and have different interests or goals and it can be defined by the focus and source of the conflict. Trough th is movie, there are several interpersonal conflicts that occurred. Paul had conflict with his hotel employees when all of them rebel and did not do their job; no housekeeping and no cooking. They all refused to work because their boss gone to close up the staff of Kivu Lodge as they have fled and give power to Paul but they did not seem to believe it and laugh at him when he said that he is a manager. As for resolution, Paul asked Sabena Airlines President, Mr. Tillens a favour. He asked Mr. Tillens to send him a letter from Belgium to show that the hotel is still working made them works. Paul also threatened his hotel staffs by saying â€Å"if you don’t want to work for me and would rather be out there, then leave now. By doing that, the workers continued their job and the hotel operates like usual. The other interpersonal conflict in this movie is when the Hutu army asked Paul to shoot his family when they all were captured by the Hutu militia. This is because the Hutu army knew that they are Tutsi and wanted them to die. In order to save them, Paul bribes them with money and alcohol. Similarly, Paul has to bribe George Rutaganda, a friendly supplier to the hotel who also is the local leader of Interahamwe, a brutal anti – Tutsi militia with costly cigar in order to get goods and food supplies for the hotel. Furthermore, Paul has to choose between his family and neighbours. Tatiana urges Paul to use his influence to help local Tutsis, who are being harassed and beaten with increasing frequency, but Paul will only use the political capital he has built up to help his own family, if and when they need it. However, he finds that his conscience would not allow him to watch as the innocent are slaughtered, and before long, the hotel has become a well-appointed refugee camp. Another conflict that happened in this movie is intranational conflict whereas it happens between parties in a certain country. As what shown in Hotel Rwanda, we can se e Hutus and Tutsis are having conflicts and they outbreak genocide at Kigali in 1994. In the film, it is said that the Tutsis were collaborators for the Belgians colonists and they are minor, where the Hutus are the majority. Belgians use Tutsi to run the country but when they left, they give powers to Hutu and at this time Hutu took revenge. Consequently, the Civil War started. Soon enough, the violence escalates, and the Hutus begin their genocide of the Tutsis. The genocide started when President Juvenal Habyarimana was been killed after he agreed to sign the peace agreement and it was told that the Tutsi rebels killed him by shooting the plane from the sky. This context would have created a situation of crisis and fear bringing about the security dilemma of to kill or to be killed that would have provoked the extermination of Tutsi. From the incident, the Interahamwe grab the chance and gave revenge to Tutsi by killing all the Tutsis. Despite the UN is The UN Peacekeeping forces, led by Canadian Colonel Oliver, are unable to take assertive action against the Interahamwe since they are forbidden to intervene in the genocide. International conflicts can be best described as conflicts that occur between two or more nation. In this movie, the international conflict shown is the discrimination against Africans or in other mean are the black people. As what I can see in the film, the foreign nationals are evacuated, but the Rwandans are left behind just because they are Africans, they are black and not even a nigger. Colonel Oliver did said that Africans are not worth a single vote to the Americans, British or French and they think that Rwandans are worthless. The United States of America also forbid the United Nations to help the Rwandans. When the Europeans are putting together an intervention force, they only save the foreigners and left the Rwandans fight alone for the sake of their life. Mainly, there is no real resolution to this conflict, however Paul asked the rest of them to call their relatives to hold tight their hand and as if they lose it, they will die. Due to that, some refugees, including Pauls family, could be saved. When the UN forces attempt to evacuate that group of refugees, they are ambushed and must turn back. In a last-ditch effort to save the refugees, Paul pleads with the Rwandan Army General, Augustin Bizimungu for assistance. However, when Pauls bribes no longer work, he blackmails the General with threats of being tried as a war criminal. Soon after, the family and the hotel refugees are finally able to leave the besieged hotel in a UN convoy. They travel through retreating masses of refugees and militia to reach safety behind Tutsi rebel lines. As I watch and analyse the movie, I think that the conflicts in Rwanda can be solved in more better and wise way. However I like the way Paul solved some of the conflicts. In the opening scenes, Rusesabagina comes across as little more than a subservient functionary of the hotel’s European corporate owners. He is a well heeled concierge, catering to the whims of the rich guests with the best food and goods available through trades and bribes within his well lubricated network of connections. Initially, he is in denial of the developing brutality and thinks himself to be insulated and protected by his contacts in high places and the good will of his employers. That trust quickly withers as the mayhem comes closer and he and his family are directly threatened. At one point, a gun is shoved into his hand and he is ordered to shoot his wife and children. His ability to negotiate the situation is the thin membrane of protection against that anguished outcome. Watching Rusesabagina effectively maneuver and manipulate the situation as best he could in order to save his amily and neighbours’ life makes me adore his way. Besides, I think that the UN did not do their job as well as they could in protecting the people. As what I have read, the US forbids the UN from helping those Rwandans as they did not want their economy down. It is because helping those countries which is in war needs a lot of energy, money and time and that is why the US did not want to help the Rwandans. I think that UN should be more protective and play their roles when the time comes. REFERENCES Definition of Conflicts. Retrieved August 14, 2010 from www. ni-muenster. de/ /docs/1)%20Conflict%20definition. doc Summary of Hotel Rwanda. Retrieved August 15, 2010 from https://www. fandango. com/hotelrwanda_v304411/summary United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda. Retrieved August 15, 2010 from https://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/United_Nations_Assistance_Mission_for_Rwanda Rwandan Genocide. Retrieved August 15, 2010 from https://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Rwandan_Genocide Benjamin R. D. (2005, February). Hotel Rwanda and the Guerrilla Negotiator. Retrieved August 14, 2010 from https://www. mediate. com/articles/benjamin18. cfm Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Hotel Rwanda" essay for you Create order